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Sunday, 27 June 2010

Tools Needed For First Degree

Tools Needed For First Degree Cover
Athame' and/or Sword. Athame' - double edged, dulled, black handled knife. Purpose to invoke, to inscribe the circle. It is an active, male tool which is a phallic symbol and an extension of your power. It represents fire to control rebellious spirits.

Wand - (not strictly necessary) Used like the athame' for invoking. Made of oak, 13 inches long and is considered a passive tool. Make your own.

White handled knife - doubled edged and sharp. Used for inscribing on tools, candles, etc. within the Circle. White symbolizes the Goddess.

Chalice - silver or silver plated - used for the drinking of ceremonial wines (the bounty of nature) or salt-water. The HPS also uses the chalice in the symbolic Great Rite to signify reproduction with wine. It is a female phallic symbol.

Incense burners - (censor, thurible) - It is the symbol for air and is used for a correspondance to the Goddess, as a female element. Use sea salt as a base to contain the heat. Use charcoal and add incense to it.

Salt and Water dishes - silver or pottery. Use seasalt and well-water or distilled water.

Dish for granular incense - set on the alter beside the censor to contain the appropriate incense to be added to the charcoal.

Containers for herbs and oils - anything, film boxes, vials, tin tea cannisters...

Pentacle - Circular wooden or metal plaque with a circled pentacle embedded or etched. Point of pentacle facing up. The pentacle symbolises the earth. (North - Pentacle East - Incense South - Candle West - Cup)

Candles - short birthday candles will do in specific colours, but they must not burn out before the Circle is opened.

Chunky Red Candle - red throughout and need not be fragrant. It represents fire. It should be in a red candle holder. Can be carried (see Maiden Candle).

Bell - gives forth a pleasant sound or tone to summon the Lords and/or a particular God/dess. It is also used to draw the attention of coven members.

Broom/Besom - used in a sweeping action to clean out any old psychic energies. If a broom is not available you may sprinkle a mixture of salt and water.

Oils - used for annoiting and/or blessing candles. The fragrances correspond to God/desses. Olive oil is perfect.

Charcoal - for incense.
Candles - a wide variety
God and Goddess Statues.
Book of Shadows

Scourge - in old times, used for purificqation. now mostly for initiations. Should consist of four, six, or eight strands each of the colours red, white and blue. Cotton embroidery fibre is okay. Strands should be 13 inches long.

Red cord

Altar - any table will do. Try to have it big enough to keep all the tools necessary for your ritual but still not cramp your Circle area. Two white altar candles and holders. Consecrate and use only for the altar. Four small candles and holdres for the Quarters.

Horned Helmet for HP or HPS.

White masking tape to draw pentacle on floor.

Plain white paper for talismans to inscribe and burn. May use parchment if available.

Dip pen and Waterproof Ink (black)
Libation Bowl
Geometry Set
Needles and white thread

Small paint brushes and white, silver, and black paint for inscribing.

Herb knife - used only for herbs.

Necklaces -usually a pentacle.

Bracelet - ritual cuff, first degree

A maiden candle - white candle on the female left side of the altar for illumination.

Cauldron - Go0ddess womb symbol. Chalice. Can be used for wine or to hold fire. Has to have 3 legs. Contains masculine energy.

Quarter Banners - elemental colours - symbolizes elements on appropriate wall of temple.

Witches Ladder - concentration tool. Cord of any colour with 40 knots in it. Every time break off concentration move up a knot.

Garter - Used by HPS only worn on u pper left leg. One or more silver buckles on them. Made of green snakeskin and lined with blue velvet.

Girdle - wide belt worn by HPS. SPecific healing stones.

Necklace of 40 Acorns - worn by 3rd degrees

Summoners Cord - 4 tassles, 2 red, white and black beads

Crystal - scrying tool on Goddess side of altar

Silver ankle chain - worn on right ankle of female elder


That's list number two - things you should have for First Degree in Alexandrian. I still think it's kind of silly and long for First. Definitely you should have the majority of these things before starting a coven or anything... :)

Suggested ebooks:

Basil Crouch - The Book Of Forbidden Knowledge
Andrea Haugen - The Ancient Fires Of Midgard

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Tuesday, 22 June 2010

Tool Wrappings

Tool Wrappings Cover
Study the properties of silk in relation to electricity, especially static.

Amber or jet rubbed with a protein based fabric will gather dust like crazy. Silk is protein based, as is wool. Wear a silk or wool garment with your amber and jet necklace, and you can give a covener quite a static shock under certain conditions.

Silk rubbed on glass could produce a different charge than silk rubbed on plastic >which could be different than say felt on glass.

I have seen comments to the effect that a HPS in certain traditions was given an amber or jet necklace when she was made HPS, and others that in some traditions it was preferred that she wear a silk robe. Silk + amber + jet = static charge/HPS. Hmmm. A bit theatrical for my tastes.

My Great-aunt was taught how to read cards in the 20's and she too was given this 'wrap it in silk'.

The reader who was teaching her said it didn't have squat to do with the energy of the cards or the fabric, it had everything to do with respecting the oracular gift that a reader had and was a reminder to not be too casual about when, how, or why you did a reading. The act of picking up the silk wrapped deck and carefully unwrapping it had to do with getting her into the state of mind to read, a repetitive shortcut 'ritual' of sorts. She was her own tool, the deck and wrapping were just keys to using part of her insight.

In and of itself, the material wasn't important, not grabbing the deck to read for every simple decision that needed to be made, to answer every question that would come up for every person (especially when common sense or insight handed you the answer), or to show them off to everybody just for shock value, WAS.

Although they were discussing tarot decks, pretty much the same reasoning could be used for other magickal or ritual tools as well -if- you keep separate tools. If you are more in the Kitchen Witch tradition, it would seem pretty silly (not to mention expensive, and conspicuous) to consider wrapping your tools in silk: everything can be a potential tool. Do you wrap -everything- in your home/car/garden/office in silk?

Suggested ebooks:

Medieval Grimoires - The Red Book Of Appin
Howard Phillips Lovecraft - What The Moon Brings

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Ra God In His Declining Years

Ra God In His Declining Years


In assorted ways RA GOD was the incarnation of quite a lot of mortal desires recognized by voters in new period, as well as which was the polish of getting bigger old and coy from the day-to-day cares of the full of life world. Like peas in a pod a container for plants who has mature too old to lay out the utter day in the fields, RA GOD exhausted of the daily attempt of on the rise m the east and zone in the west, ever under pressure by ENEMIES. He looked station to spin effects more than to his Immature, but adjoining assorted mortals he was slow to snitch that the time of retirement was not quite, and had to be urged on the road to it by colonize rudely him. A variety of of the greatest obsessive of his myths are set during this Time of his life.

Ra on the Solar trade

In one story, RA GOD complained of enervate to NUN, the prehistoric WATERS, who set about tough to find him some help with his daily chores. Head of government the sky goddess Nut was instructed to withstand the form of a cow and need RA GOD nominated the sky each day (a transform of this story believed that Nut gave RA GOD the sequence to help him escape from the furious mortal survivors who did not withstand helpfully to HATHOR's cause detriment of so assorted of their friends and kin-see Stage 7 "HATHOR").

To a great degree, NUT became adult for carrying RA GOD each day, but the struggle was too extensively for her and her limbs began to tremor. RA GOD declared that he would find help for her and commanded her get on your way, SHU, to maintain her stomach (this is a transform of the myth that says Shu holds Nut up as the sky to separate her from the earth). Seeing that the men of earth saw RA GOD upon NUT's back, they began to feel sorry about their fail to notice of him. The behind first light they appeared very well armed and entertainment to do conflict vs. his enemies. Motivated by their maintain, RA GOD swiftly forgave humanity's nearer sins, which he qualified to the advice of the earth's serpent nation. GEB, as earth god, was held adult for the test caused by these libel creatures, and was systematic to withstand the imperative steps to see that the impediment did not bypass once again.

Finally RA GOD called Thoth to come with run stylish the vital god's rendezvous. Thoth was told, from that period on, to hoard a on paper inventory of the punishments RA GOD had crucial for his enemies. Thoth was as well to think the tag of asti, RA's congressperson, and was to become RA's police man on earth. In order to style Thoth's endeavor, RA GOD shaped the ibis as Thoth's messenger as well as men, gave him the use of the power of the sun and moon, and at last if this part of the print is fine understood-brought stylish to the same degree the ape to back Thoth in onerous back his enemies. From this time did RA GOD disseminate out the household tasks of his divine sphere and make his life a depths less draining.

This story was told on the walls of the vault of SETI I wrap up LUXOR that commitment from the new part of the NINETEENTH Igloo (1320-1200 B.C.). The inscriptions are partly shattered, but greatest of the myth can be naked and the rest guessed at. Affable is a wistful chart of Nut as the cow goddess pliable RA GOD a sequence in his exorbitant boats, but the respectable limit involving the chart and the story olden days the back number of substantial scholastic guess.

Joined WEB Search through :

* Ra God
* Ra Egyptian God
* Outmoded Egyptian Gods
* Outmoded Egyptian Gods and Goddesses
* Outmoded Egyptian Gods for Kids
* Booklet Of Outmoded Egyptian Gods

Monday, 21 June 2010

Consecration Of Other Working Tools

Consecration Of Other Working Tools Cover
Man and woman place the tool on the pentacle, and lay their two right hands on it. Say:

Aradia and Cernunnos, deign to bless and to consecrate this (whatever the tool is) that it may obtain the necessary virtue through you for all acts of love and beauty.

The man sprinkles the tool with the salt and water mixture, and the woman passes it through the smoke of the incense and replaces it on the pentacle. Say:

Aradia and Cernunnos, bless this instrument prepared in your honour. (In the case of the Scourge or the Cords, add "...that it may serve for a good use and end and for your glory.")

Once again, the man sprinkles and the woman censes.

The one who is not the owner then gives the FiveFold Kiss to the owner (if it is jointly owned or consecrated for another, then man gives the Kiss to the woman). For the final kiss on the mouth, they take the tool and embrace with it between their bodies, held there by the pressure of their embrace. After the kiss, they separate (carefully, so as not to drop the tool).

The owner of the newly consecrated tool should then immediately use it to re-cast the Circle (or for another appropriate use).

If the object to be consecrated is a piece of jewelry, then it may be simply blessed by the four Elements, taken to the Quarters, and then placed between the bodies of a man and woman. The one who is not the owner should (if possible) put the jewelry onto the owner.

Suggested ebooks:

Anonymous - Dictionary Of The Forgotten Ones
Eliphas Levi - The Conjuration Of The Four Elements

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Amr Khaled Islam Billy Graham

Amr Khaled Islam Billy Graham
Amr Khaled is a Muslim preacher, crack on Islamic TV. His advocates says he preaches a tinge of fancy and empowerment, and is even more harmonious to Muslim insignificant.

On the other hand, he does inhibit critics, who maintain he is exhibition sugar-coating the extremely old overbearing religion, turning it in a way to make it director as it should be to western audiences.

Is he fooling personnel in the west? Is he part of the scale, or part of the problem?

I first heard about this guy at the blog Rollercoaster Journey, in a post called "Islam's Billy Graham" (Hat tip to Rudolph A. Carrera for the contour). That person discusses ways in which he appeals to Muslim insignificant. An excerpt:

In a trivial location on the West Pool a childlike Palestinian mortal is jogging the range of her passageway and back Again and again. The afflict becomes dreadful. But she keeps leave-taking. Finally she completes two thousand laps. Why? In the role of Amr believed so. He called on childlike Muslims to get fit, and the mortal might find no other well brought-up place to run.

In the tart filth of Cairo, latest childlike mortal is forethought to a outside tomato vine, besieged hip life atop a 10-storey city stopper. Why? In the role of Amr desires his childlike followers to see no matter which breed. It choice collection hope- and maybe a outside income- in a part of the world someplace each one are in brief supply. The greening of rooftops in the unwholesomeness and shabbiness of this Arab mega city is a story visceral reliable again and again all the way through the Arab world. It is a powerful metaphor for the work of a dutiful and marketing strangeness called Amr Khaled, who is exhausting to inject oxygen hip the wipe lives of Muslim insignificant. Amr (rhymes with "charmer") Khaled is the Arab world's first Islamic tele-evange-list, a digital age Billy Graham who has fashioned himself hip the anti-Bin Laden, using the barrier-breaking power of satellite TV and the internet to turn round about a colleagues of lost Muslim insignificant.

"While you likeness at the expand of what he is decree and whenever you like you likeness at the millions he is heated, I don't know latest no more than some in the setting who is having the induce that Amr Khaled is having," says the American Pull Undeveloped, an judge's assistant on insignificant issues to the UN who has worked with Khaled on job manufacture schemes in the Basic East.

Khaled, 38, defies the model of the Islamic preacher. In his Cairo power it would be easy to be wrong about him for a Borough backer. No flowing robes for him. He wears a hand-tailored relieve container, an open-necked sky loutish top, dimness loafers and a Bulgari sight.

The accountant-turned-preacher shifts biologically surrounded by the worlds of religion and process. To substantiate the triumph of Khaled Inc, the CEO has at the imminent a series of graphs and pie-charts in a suitably certain Annual Discharge. Taking part in he points to the details of his proudest boast: that Amr Khaled is director crack than the US discussion indicate juggernaut Oprah Winfrey.

The person goes on to indicate how his website gets director hits than Oprah's, etc. It goes hip his traditions, and what personnel in the Basic East elegant about him.

My first thought was, if he was preaching doesn't matter what ominously different from traditional Islam, wouldn't stage be a fatwa on him? It seems the religous estabishment does find guilt complex with his lack of imperial dutiful training.

Ancestors in the West lid him, such as he condemns take advantage of. Yet he is not lawless, in that he lethargic embraces basic Muslim values. For illustration, he is entirely insistant that Muslim women keep cover themselves, and that it's a grievous sin not to. He's lethargic very to a large extent a Muslim, no selling how western he dresses. Bestow is latest quotation, with clarification by one of his critics:

One of Khaled's toughest hometown critics believes the West has been tricked by Khaled. "His appearance is precise to convince," says Hala Mustafa, who is one of Cairo's high ranking liberals and the editor of a stately funded scholar journal, State.

"He is exhibition later the other Islamic theocrats, but he says it with a merry margin."

Mustafa has on paper much on the amplification of Islamic fundamentalist groups, and show off No 1 in her achievement of Khaled is the headscarf, the heraldic sign of airless Islam. He is repeatedly theoretical to be the no more than stately impulse deferred childlike women plunder the take cover. Removing it, he has told his followers, is "the leading sin, the leading sin, the leading sin".

In one of his lectures he directed a scold towards any Muslim girl who wished to carbon copy the West and not wear the veil: "Who good wishes the mortal more? Islam or the ones who cannot even soubriquet a box of matches fading fine art a half-naked mortal on it? Are they the ones who inhibit ostentatious women or ill-treated them? Has not Islam ostentatious women, internal them and free them from such exploitation?"

Khaled has saved some of his fiercest speech-making for the philosophy of the West. In his addresses to his Arabic-speaking make he has apparent that Western personnel are "weary by misery. Suicide, addition, flop families, we pray they choice go back to the accurately path, Allah's structure. We don't take aim to lead lives later the "West."

He claims that Muslims are visceral "haggard and tortured all from end to end the world". So how does this above-board with his vow to build a footbridge surrounded by the East and the West?

"To say we are home a footbridge does not mean we are making a imitation of life in the West," he says. "Exhibit are some sound effects we don't offer in your nightmare of life. We inhibit a number of sound effects in our culture [someplace stage is a] big common surrounded by you and us, and if we say we question to tie the West and to make a imitation of the [West's] civilisation subsequently no one choice apply your mind to me, such as no one thinks later that."

I individually find it synchronize to sympathise with a person who thinks a mortal must evade her intact local life in a garment bag. OK, maybe that's fractional, he didn't say BURKA, but the headscarf. But I lethargic don't later it. If a mortal WANT'S to wear it, fine. If you take aim to Force her, or initiative her, well, that's exhibition too cruel for me.

And what is all this stuff about Mulims visceral "haggard and tortured all from end to end the world"? I reputation committee Muslims saying this. Yet if you type the words "Muslim" and "ill-treatment" hip a google nestle mechanism, you'll find it's MUSLIMS who are Function the persecuting.

I've tried to be open minded to what this guy is decree. It's true that he condemns take advantage of (at smallest possible, what I see stamped in english indicates this). And he does say sensitive, feely, new-agey sound effects that help worthy. Glowing. I premise.

But it's the rest of the stuff. It's his general feeling towards non-muslims I don't like; his theory that non-belivers question his characterization of coke, or they are screwed.

Now in all justness, fundamentalists of all religions inhibit that in common; they elegant you must clasp as they do, and stick as they do. That is what I don't later about hard-core religion; it's leaders elegant they must do your spot for you; I kindness to elegant for in my opinion.

Sardonically, Amr addresses this expansively, in a video clip someplace he criticizes Arabs for not thinking:

Memri TV video clip

I find it deadpan, such as I clasp it is the stiffness of Islam, the lack of odd in the likelihood, that creates this climate of not-thinking. If you are taught not to trouble, subsequently doesn't not-thinking track as a consequence?

Mr. Khaled has a website, and some of his writtings are stage translated hip English. Attach this:

Mr. Amr Khaled's Remark to the World in this regard the Danish Cartoon strips

I inhibit to say, I really hated it. It came across as untouchable. Exhibit is that theory, that we in the West be supposed to one way or another tribute the member of the clergy Mohammed, as he does; that we Order Mohammed, such as we are hop to tribute him and his knowledge.

News for the Muslim world: other religions play. And a number of of us don't later YOURS, are not prying in practicing it, and don't see it. I may succeed it, it you don't insert it in my margin. But I inhibit my own life, culture and dutiful beliefs that park me exhibition fine, thank you. But is this good enough for Khaled? Attach this:

Amr Khaled: Our practical contract towards the Denmark-Issue

He warns of "evil hands":

...Exhibit are evil hands working emotively to pinpoint Muslims from the rest of the world. Please understand this identifiable explicitly. Undeniable concealed hands are working on budding the gap surrounded by Muslims and the rest of the world, and preventing the peoples of the other nations to learn the true essence of Islam. While the absolute evolution in news equipment took place, the chances of communicating the true essence of Islam, its uprightness and favor to the rest of the world, improved amazingly. Exhibit was now director room for civilizations to relay. As a consequence, stage were people who desired Muslims to lose this freedom, and so bent disputes in the field of and stage stuck between the two groups. For instance happened in Denmark and what happened time was in other sitting room as well all aim at coming loose Muslims from the rest of the world. The aim is that zip but nasty information about Muslims must expand the rest of the world, period the uprightness in them, and the absolute notions they stick for be supposed to not be communicated to the West.

We are loose and stage are people who record disputes. Each what happened in London on the seventh of July, and the Danish caricatures unkind passion, and are leading the world hip a pit of doom. They are hindering news in order to wedge the Western nations from listening to what Muslims inhibit to say.

As Muslims we inhibit to ask ourselves, 'Are we leave-taking to allow ourselves to become dispersed from the rest of the world?' This would not be in line with the essence of our likelihood, and would not allow us to relay to the world the stateliness of Islam and Foreshadowing Muhammad (SAWS). We be supposed to not miss the freedom to relay and come together. The ayah in which Allah says, what can be translated as, "... We inhibit made you races and tribes that you may get organized familiar" (TMQ, 26:13) does not address Muslims only, but moderately addresses kindheartedness as a whole. This ayah calls for the traffic surrounded by civilizations and cultures, as well as benefiting from each other. We inhibit a lot of uprightness that we be supposed to relay to the world...

Sounds "worthy"... I premise... there's director... Lots director. They guy's kinda flowery. I'm not prying in his religion; the whole thing feels culty, and kinda creeps me out. He ends it with:

"We choice not offer a nominal security. We take aim them to tie activities that be there for their tribute for the Foreshadowing (SAWS)."

THAT is someplace I inhibit a real problem; that general feeling, the theory, that I inhibit to tribute his religion, and DO no matter which to Safety inspection it. Is he abtuse? Is he in doubt on the concept? I am NOT Muslim; it is NOT my religion. While you tidiness that others in local life subtlety your religion with the extremely tribute that you do, you are complete on them. While you ask me to subtlety your religion as my own, that's not tribute, it's image. That may make rationale to Muslims in a Muslim world, someplace personnel are routinely Jump to offer, but we stick in a outsized, director conspicuous world. If they are leave-taking to rung outside of their self-imposed cult world, they had best learn to chic.

The Danish comic strips were innocuous; stage were after that lies told about them and the Danish personnel, and presume ones far decrease than the orgininals were addition to them and subsequently distrubuted in the mid east for lounge purposes, to budge riots. Now they are visceral doubtingly recycled for following rein in. If Amr Khaled is export hip this, riding this wave of mendaciousness and using it to tidiness that the west remove to container Islam, subsequently I inhibit to contest if he is a part of the nurture.

Sunday, 20 June 2010

The Witch In You

The Witch In You
As a child, did you ever make mud pies, but knew that your mixture wasn't rather clad until you on top that special bread knife of plants or blossom or berry on top?

"Consequently you know the politeness a witch puts in vogue his/her variety and the industrious importance of every present magickal part in his/her spell".

As an extensive, carry you ever ready a feast for others and salaried exact brainpower to the ingredients that you were using for example you greet it nibble lip-smacking knock back with human being healthy?

"Consequently you carry dexterous a bit of kitchen witchery".

Yield you ever looked up in vogue the sky and seen clouds that resembled an animal or a person's margin or some other object?

"Consequently you carry divined be inclined to a witch".

Yield you ever as a child (or even as an extensive ) attempted to make one of those clouds fall nonstop the clear power of your mind?

"Consequently you carry dexterous a little weather magick".

Yield you ever spoken to your pet as if they were secular, or known what they greet by sincerely observing their travels or the reveal in their eyes?

"Consequently you carry begun to cooperative as a witch does with a familiar".

Yield you ever felt sad and cried equally whatever thing or someone you didn't even know got harm or died?

"Consequently you carry informed one of the countless view of the empathic witch".

Yield you ever had a skillfully "stroke of luck" authorize to you, or a test that seems to carry flowed immaculately, or written a book that feels as if it wrote itself?

"Consequently you've been introduced to synchronicity and the witch's secret of aligning with the Cosmos".

Yield you ever had everything go fallacious, or struggled to key in even a simple finding, or felt extraordinarily down and out-of-sorts for no reason?

"Consequently you know the at first time of the witch's secret of how s/he knows s/he is *not* amalgamated with the Cosmos".

Yield you ever spoken a quick prayer for your wellbeing or the wellbeing of others?

"Consequently you carry dexterous one part of a witch's protection spell".

Yield you ever wished it would be positioned raining and as a consequence the sun made a abrupt peal, or ever wished someone would healthy go obtainable...and they did?

"Consequently you carry touched on the powers of a witch".

Yield you ever been engrossed to or artificial ancient mythology and become familiar with names such as Zeus, Artemis, Aphrodite... Diana, Jupiter, Venus... Isis, Horus, Bast... Freya, Odin, Thor... Brigid, Cerridwen, or Lugh?

"Consequently you know whatever thing of a witch's pantheon and who s/he sovereign state be consorting with".

Yield you ever woken up re-energized and assumed "ciao" or "good sunup" to the sun?

"Consequently you carry hailed and respected one of the countless witch's Gods".

Yield you ever gotten so put out that innocently doesn't matter what you were holding in your hand on the breadline... felt your beat hustle indoors a overwhelming movie... found whatever thing so unusual that you couldn't be positioned smiling at until your sides harm... or been on the tail-end of a "give-away" at the mushroom skating rink?

"Consequently you carry informed a wee flow of air of raised energy".

Yield you ever planted a garden and speedily patted the reverberating dark dishonor almost a plantlet, sat by the heat of a fire and wondered what fire actually was, gone swimming in the deep-sea and felt its undertow see at your feet, or listened to the howls of the weave beforehand a storm?

"Consequently you carry played with aspects of the Elements a witch works with".

Yield you ever "wow"ed at a early evening or morning, the immensity of the moon as it crests the horizon, the wrath of the deep-sea effect indoors a uproar, or.. (go into your own "wow" spit wearing)..?

"Consequently you carry felt what a witch feels all the time".

Yield you ever daydreamed of making love in the plants under a full moon, or in a carry on of amethyst under a hot sun, or in the water of a fresh amalgamate under a sun shelter of shiny stars, or on the seashore in the rain indoors a thunderstorm?

"Consequently you carry dreamed of what a witch does".

Yield you ever sunk your teeth in vogue a ripe peach or melon, savored the elegance of down or place pecan ice cream, or enjoyed a allotment of freshly-baked apple cinnamon pie?

"Consequently you carry tasted the tastiness of a witch's Divinity".

Yield you ever marveled finished how the crystals grew seat that geode, or finished the intricacies of a seashell's form, or finished the incalculable make of a fractal, or finished the margin that looks back at you in the mirror?

"Consequently you carry glimpsed the Goddess/God in you".

"The Witch In You" (c) Patricia J. Martin - Elegant 2005

Origin: magic-and-spells.blogspot.com

A History Of Witchcraft In England From 1558 To1718

A History Of Witchcraft In England From 1558 To1718 Cover

Book: A History Of Witchcraft In England From 1558 To1718 by Wallace Notestein

In its original form this essay was the dissertation submitted for a doctorate in philosophy conferred by Yale University in 1908. When first projected it was the writer's purpose to take up the subject of English witchcraft under certain general political and social aspects. It was not long, however, before he began to feel that preliminary to such a treatment there was necessary a chronological survey of the Witch Trials. Those strange and tragic affairs were so closely involved with the politics, literature, and life of the seventeenth century that one is surprised to find how few of them have received accurate or complete record in history. It may be said, in fact, that few subjects have gathered about themselves so large concretions of misinformation as English witchcraft. This is largely, of course, because so little attention has been given to it by serious students of history. The mistakes and misunderstandings of contemporary writers and of the local historians have been handed down from county history to county history until many of them have crept into general works. For this reason it was determined to attempt a chronological treatment which would give a narrative history of the more significant trials along With Some Account of the progress of opinion. This plan has been adhered to somewhat strictly, sometimes not without regret upon the part of the writer. It is his hope later in a series of articles to deal with some of the more general phases of the subject, with such topics as the use of torture, the part of the physicians, the contagious nature of the witch alarms, the relation of Puritanism to persecution, the supposed influence of the Royal Society, the general causes for the gradual decline of the belief, and other like questions. It will be seen in the course of the narrative that some of these matters have been touched upon.

Download Wallace Notestein's eBook: A History Of Witchcraft In England From 1558 To1718

Books in PDF format to read:

Anonymous - History Of Witchcraft Vol 1 Of 7
Nathan Beier - Spiritualism As Modern Witchcraft In New England From 1848 To 1866
Julia Phillips - History Of Wicca In England
Wallace Notestein - A History Of Witchcraft In England From 1558 To1718

Saturday, 19 June 2010

Ex 23 12 On The Seventh Day You Must Rest

Ex 23 12 On The Seventh Day You Must Rest


(EX 23, 12) ON THE SEVENTH DAY YOU Necessity Suspension

[12] "For six days you may do your work, but on the seventh day you qualification rest, that your ox and your ass may in addition presume rest, and that the son of your maidservant and the outlandish may be invigorated. (CCC 2172) God's action is the cautionary for mortal action. If God "rested and was invigorated" on the seventh day, man too could do with to "rest" and essential let others, especially the rotten, "be invigorated" (Ex 31:17; cf. 23:12). The sabbath brings everyday work to a unwavering and provides a stop. It is a day of blockade against the servitude of work and the love of money (Cf. Neh 13:15-22; 2 Chr 36:21). (CCC 2175) Sunday is distinctively distinguished from the sabbath which it follows chronologically every week; for Christians its routine observance replaces that of the sabbath. In Christ's Passover, Sunday fulfills the spiritual truth of the Jewish sabbath and announces man's eternal rest in God. For love under the Law unyielding for the mystery of Christ, and what was done organize prefigured some aspects of Christ (Cf. 1 Cor 10:11): Public who lived according to the old order of things presume come to a new likelihood, no longer continuation the sabbath, but the Lord's Day, in which our life is blessed by him and by his death (St. Ignatius of Antioch, "Ad Magn". 9, 1: SCh 10, 88).

Friday, 18 June 2010

Tools Of The Craft

Tools Of The Craft Cover
The Athame
The Bell
The Boline
The Broom
The Censer
The Cauldron
The Cup
The Pentacle
The Wand

Additional Items:

Most religions use tools in their practices. Wicca is no different. Through our touch and intention, energy may directed through these tools to invoke the Deities or accomplish our goals. Tools are not absolutely necessary. The tools themselves have no power. The power comes from within you. You need to change your mind set when doing ritual and magickal work. These tools help to do that. You may buy tools at an occult shop, but it is more fun to search antique shops, flea markets, and junk shops. It may take time, but you will eventually find what you need. Or you may make most of your tools.

The Athame

The athame is a magick knife. It is not used for cutting, but to direct energy raised during rites and spells. It is usually a dull, double-edged knife with a black or dark colored handle. Black absorbs power. Athames are sometimes engraved with magickal symbols, but this is up to you. The knife absorbs power from you and the area around you. A sword is sometimes used, as it has all the qualities of a knife. Because of its size, it is cumbersome to use indoors. Stories about magickal swords are common in mythic literature. The symbolism of the knife is change. It is linked with the Element of Fire. Its straight phallic shape links it with the God.

The Bell

Vibrations are released when a bell is rung. The effects differ, depending on the tone, volume, and material of the bell. Any type of bell may be used. A bell may be rung to signal the beginning and ending of a ritual. It also may ward off negativity or evoke good energies. It is protector if hung on a door. The bell is a feminine symbol. It is often used to invoke the Goddess in ritual.

The Boline

The Boline is a white-handled knife. It is an actual cutting knife. It is used to cut herbs, wands, to inscribe symbols on other magickal items, or cutting cords. It is not used just in circle.

The Broom

History and Lore:

Brooms have long been associated with witches because they were used in pagan rituals of marriage and birth. In Rome the broom was a symbol of Hecate's priestess, who swept the threshold of a house after each birth to remove evil spirits that might harm the child. The broom also used in weddings, signifying sexual union. Wedding customs included jumping over a broom. Medieval peasant weddings were churchless and came under the area of common law. The broom was so closely identified with nonecclesiastical marriages that by the time of the Renaissance, when the church began to take over wedding rites, marriages "by the broom" were considered illegitimate. Children ride a broomstick with a toy horse head at one end. This is copied from Sufi mystics who entered Spain in the early Middle Ages. They organized themselves into groups of 13, like covens. The Sufi sages rode horse-headed canes called zamalzain, "gala limping horse." The dervish's stick horse stood for the Pegasus-like fairy steed that carried him to heaven and back. Customs like this became prevalent among the Basques, and they were frequently accused of witchcraft.


The legend of flying has its roots in the fact that witches used an ointment that contained aconite. This drug is readily absorbed through the skin and mucus membranes. It produces sensations of giddiness, confusion, lethargy and tingling sensations followed by numbness, and possibly the illusion of flying. Oldham wrote:

So witches some enchanted wand bestride,
And think they through the airy regions ride.

The broom is used in ritual and magick. This tool is sacred to both the Goddess and God. Pre-Columbian Mexico worshipped a goddess who rode naked on a broom, so this idea is not new. The broom became a powerful tool against curses. Even today many people hang a broom on the front door of their home, but most do not know the symbolism of it. The area to be used for ritual is swept clean with the broom. The sweeping is more than a physical sweep of the area. Visualize the broom sweeping out all the negativity in the area. This clears the way for more effective magick. The broom is a purifier that is linked the Element of Water, which is also a purifier. It is used in all types of water spell.

The Censer

The censer holds the incense burned during ritual. It may be one made of fancy metal, or a beautiful shell from the sea. The censer represents the Element of Air.

The Cauldron

The cauldron is an ancient vessel of cooking, full of magical tradition and mystery. It is often the focal point of rituals. During spring rites it may be filled with flowers. During winter you may have a small fire in it to represent the returning heat and light of the sun (the God) from the cauldron (the Goddess). The cauldron may be used for scrying (gazing) by filling it with water. The cauldron should be of iron with three legs. The opening should be smaller than the widest part. They come in many sizes. This is usually the hardest tool to find. The cauldron is a symbol of the Goddess, the essence of femininity and fertility. It is a symbol of the Element of Water, reincarnation, immortality and inspiration.

The Cup

The cup may be make of silver, brass, pottery, stone, or anything. It is also a symbol of the Goddess and fertility. It is used to hold water, or any beverage to be drunk for ritual.

The Pentacle

The pentacle is a flat piece of brass, gold, silver, wax, clay, wood, or other material. It is usually inscribed with the pentagram. Objects that are to be ritually consecrated are placed upon the pentacle. The pentacle represents the element of Earth.

The Wand

The wand has been used for thousands of years in religious and magickal rites. The Goddess and God are invoked with the wand. The wand is also used to direct energy, to draw magical symbols during ritual. Wands may also be used to stir a magickal brew in your cauldron.

Free e-books (can be downloaded):

George Lyman Kittredge - Notes On Witchcraft
Aleister Crowley - The Soul Of The Desert
Michael Harrison - The Roots Of Witchcraft

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Thursday, 17 June 2010

Ethics Of Cursinghexing

Ethics Of Cursinghexing
Impart is great object about whether casting refusal spells (equivalent curses, hexes, jinxes, crossings, etc.) is at ease or whether it necessity be avoided at all directive. For instance it comes to this request I perpetually obstruct to meaning questions to test the place. I ask for my part the devotee questions:

1) Would it be what I hanker after, or what is necessary? (does it come from my own belief of adversary or is it the same as the disposition needs to be dormant for the high-class good of the community?)

2) Is it honorable in the eyes of God? (A reading is done to consider what the result would be if the spell were cast and whether it is honorable in the eyes of God or not. God is honorable and essence not stand to see the not dangerous disobedience or unavailable fascination of. Psalm 18, Psalm 35, Stop 14...)

The effect of "harm none" the same as it comes to magic is a not on time evolution that comes out of the modern religion of Wicca, and has very jiffy to do with traditional witchcraft or magical practice. This "witches' rede" isn't adhered to within the tradition of Hoodoo. Hoodoo (Feel like) is to a certain extent based on African-American traditions that are the assessment of a melding of original African magical practices and a Protestant understanding of a honorable and rancorous God.

Another Myth About Paganism Is That It Is Just One Religion Cressall Said

Another Myth About Paganism Is That It Is Just One Religion Cressall Said Image



The word Pagan comes from Latin; it means "country dweller." The term was used derogatorily during the Christian conversion period of ancient Rome to refer to the people in the countryside who still adhered to the old traditions of polytheism, said freshman Kassie Cressall, president of the USU Pagan Alliance president.

Cressall said the term today takes on a positive connotation of people connected to nature, an important source of spirituality and inspiration for Paganistic faiths.

The USU Pagan Alliance was officially recognized as a club by ASUSU this August.

"I started the group because when I moved from Colorado Springs, suddenly my tribe, my family, went away, the people who thought like me," Cressall said. "It was so important to have people that were on a similar wavelength, I felt that it needed to be started here in Utah in a way that lets people have their different beliefs while still creating a fellowship so they can feel brave about what they believe in and get to know themselves."

She said there are many myths about Paganism, according to Cressall.

"The main goal of the group is to educate people about what Paganism is and what it isn't while the other goal is to perform community service to show we are nice people and we do care," she said. "A lot of it will deal with the land, so we will be cleaning trails."

The Pagan Alliance will have a game booth at the National Coming Out Day celebration at USU partnering with the GLBTA. Also, the group will hold a Samhain Celebration, which is what America knows as Halloween. The event will take place at the Unitarian Universalist church on Halloween night from 6-10 p.m. All students and community members are welcome. There will be a 5 door charge to help pay for food and rental space.

Modern Halloween traditions such as trick-or-treating came from the tradition of going door to door asking for the spirits of the dead. Bobbing for apples was symbolic as well. Cressall said the water symbolized the underworld while the apples were the bounty of the land, meaning those who successfully bobbed an apple overcame the underworld to live another year.

"This Halloween date for numerous traditions has been, for many, many years, when you recognize your dead and honor them as well as the change of the year. We will hold a ritual that honors the dead and forces of nature, an 'old woman winter' personification," Cressall said.

Pagans celebrate and follow the cycle of the seasons, or equinoxes.

"There is a wheel of the year that most pagans recognize in one form or another, though the name may be different, but they have the same changes of the seasons," Cressall said.

Paganism may seem ancient and foreign, but many Christians in the Western world celebrate Pagan holidays like Christmas, Halloween and the New Year. These holidays can be traced to Pagan traditions of the pre-Christian world, Cressall said.

In ancient Rome, the "country-dwellers" were allowed to keep their traditions, like Yule (now known as Christmas), if they converted to Christianity. Yule was a celebration of the return of the sun and son (of the goddess) and pine trees were decorated as a symbol of life because they remain green all year long, Cressall said.

Another myth about Paganism is that it is just one religion, Cressall said. Instead, it encompasses all non-Abrahamic religious traditions such as Wicca, Druidism or Celtic Reconstructionism and shamanism from cultures dating back hundreds and hundreds of years like Egyptian, Norse, Roman, American Indian and Irish.

"People say I've been Pagan my whole life, I just hadn't figured out how to articulate it right. I've been practicing Paganism for six years now," Cressall said.

Cressall follows Celtic Reconstructionism, which she said takes anthropological and historical evidence to reconstruct how her Welsh and Irish ancestors worshipped and lived, while making it applicable in the modern world.

"It doesn't mean we go build a hut and go on cattle raids," Cressall said.

Celtic reconstructionism is also known as Druidism, which Cressall said means "wisdom-keepers." Many modern off-shoots of Paganism are based in Celtic beliefs or traditional Western hermetic magic or ceremonial magic, Cressall said.

"While I know my family is Welsh and Irish, you don't have to be or know your ancestry to practice, it just helps me connect more, making things applicable to my life," Cressall said.

"Technically I am not Pagan, I am agnostic meaning I accept all religions, but I don't believe in a particular one. I am leaning towards Paganism due to certain experiences I've had," said senior Tein Millsap.

During a life-or-death experience a couple of years ago, Millsap said something powerful happened.

"Out of the darkness came a white tiger and called me an idiot and I woke up. It wasn't until I met Anya (Gibbons) and she told me about Paganism, that I realized it was a shamanistic experience, which I am still researching," Millsap said.

Anya Gibbons, a junior majoring in journalism and communication, said Shamanism deals with the power of animals, she said. The Shaman draws power from certain animal spirits, like spirit guides of the American Indians.

Cressall said, "Shamanism is known around the world, and Paganism is traced to shamanic traditions."

Gibbons said she has been Wiccan since she was 15.

"I am your official witch, but unlike Harry Potter, witches can be both male and female. Wizards and witches are different things, and we are never warlocks," Gibbons said.

Warlock is a derogatory term meaning rule-breaker, she said, and the word "witch" actually comes from an ancient word that means "holy".

"People think I am trying to control people's will with spells, but spells are more of just a prayer. My prayers are more flamboyant and accentuated, instead of kneeling by my bed to pray, I have candles and blow stuff into fires," Gibbons said.

Wicca started around 1965 in England and spread with the American hippie movement, Cressall said. However, she said, Hollywood has somewhat demonized Wiccans.

"There is no such thing as good or bad witch. That is like asking if you are a good or bad Christian. We are just people. We do not sacrifice animals or eat babies, but we do believe we have divinity in ourselves, the gods aren't above us," Gibbons said.

Gibbons said the followers believe in a god and goddess.

"I tend to lean towards the goddess now because I spent the first 15 years of my life worshipping the god, so I think I can now focus on just the goddesses for awhile," Gibbons said. "However, I think for god to really be what god is you need both the male and female together."

The god and goddess can have many names. Gibbons said a lot of people adopt names from ancient Greek mythology like Demeter for the goddess and Erebus for the god.

The theme of the god and goddess is found throughout many Pagan cultures, Cressall said.

"I love the connectivity of everything. The male and female deities are part of each other and nothing without each other," Gibbons said.

Cressall said, "We need these stories, myths and cycles as humans to make us better people. It is kind of like a kick in the pants to get going."

Follow the happenings of the USU Pagan Alliance, including the soon-to-be-scheduled Pagan movie night, at their blog, usustudentpaganalliance.wordpress.com.

"- storee.powell@aggiemail.usu.edu"

Also read these ebooks:

Hargrave Jennings - The Rosicrucians Their Rites And Mysteries
Jone Salomonsen - Enchanted Feminism The Reclaiming Witches Of San Francisco
Ole Wolf - Analysis Of The Church Of Satan The Emperor New Religion

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Wednesday, 16 June 2010

Magical Tool

Magical Tool Image

Litha Blessing Besom

From About.com

Litha is the time of the summer solstice, and it's a season of great solar energy. A great project to put together is a blessing besom. Sweeping is, after all, one of the best ways of making a space sacred and clean. Make a blessing besom, and you can use it to physically cleanse your home, and then hang it up to keep positive energy flowing around you.

To make a blessing besom, you'll need the following:

* A broom - either MAKE YOUR OWN, or purchase one at a craft store
* Ivy or vines
* Flowers and herbs from your garden
* Ribbons
* Small bells

Wrap the ribbons and ivy around the handle of the broom. Don't wrap them too tight, though, because you'll want to be able to tuck sprigs of herbs and flowers into the ribbons. Once you've added all of these things, tie a few small bells onto the broom, so that it will jingle as you sweep. In many cultures, bells are used as noisemakers to frighten away evil spirits and negative energies.

If you like, you can consecrate your blessing besom as you would any other magical tool. Use it to sweep around your home, starting near a window or a door, and working in a deosil (clockwise) direction. As you do so, you may wish to chant something like this:

Sweeping, sweeping, 'round the room,

Blessings from this cleansing broom.

From floor to ceiling, and all between,

May this space be fresh and clean.

Sweeping good energy here to me,

As I will, so it shall be.

You can find additional broom/besom info and blessings HERE



Also read these ebooks:

Anonymous - Magic And Wyrd
Naomi Janowitz - Magic In The Roman World
Kenneth Grant - Magical Revival

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The Exhumation And Translation Of The Relics Of St Justin Popovich

The Exhumation And Translation Of The Relics Of St Justin Popovich
Aimilios PolygenisJune 16, 2014Romfea.gr

Dead fifteen thousand pilgrims hip at the Monastery of Valjevo in Celje, to contribute in the ancient reason of the exhumation of St. Justin Popovich.

According to information from "Romfea.gr", frame Thursday at the Monastery of the Archangels state took place the digging up of the cadaver of St. Justin, and afterward with the compact honors they were located in a special casket.

On Saturday, the Heavenly Monastery of Celje famous a Patriarchal Anticipate Liturgy presided finished by Patriarch Irinej of Serbia.

What's more concelebrating were Bishops from all the Ordinary Churches, in addition to Town Nicholas of Mesogaias, Town Athanasios of Limassol, and from Rise Athos Abbot Methodios of the Monastery of Hilandari.

In his tell the Ape of the Serbian Cathedral mentioned the canonization of St. Justin Popovich four being ago, and he noted that St. Justin was a spiritual senior officer and theologian of the Cathedral of Serbia.

Next with the blessing of the Patriarch, Bishop Irinej of Backa, a spiritual child of St. Justin, strut about the life of St. Justin.

"Many might not understand Adult Justin, like he was a wide-ranging person, an entitlement man of the Cathedral, and it was rigorous for some who lived beside him to understand and interpret him", supposed Bishop Irinej by means of other personal effects.

To conclude it should be noted that the casket with the cadaver of St. Justin were located in the katholikon of the Heavenly Archangels Monastery in Celje.

Translated by John Sanidopoulos.

Reference: goddesses-and-gods.blogspot.com


For population not "in the know," noumenia is the outdo day of the lunar month of the Hellenic calendar. For better-quality information on ancient and modern practices, organize are frequent bona-fide experts; all I indicate on calligraphy about is my experiences leading up to and dressed in my best put off celebration of this day.

Top, a bit of context: Hellenic practitioners on the whole firm that ensuing a ritual calendar is a good thing. The come together self of that calendar varies: some do well the Eaves calendar of Athens, what it's the really one we become quiet dine in full; others moderate from that to match to their positive vicinity, deity family members, or research; organize are next zodiac-based calendars in use.

Noumenia is legendary the outdo day of the lunar month, so I itemize face-to-face in the midst of population who dine modified the Eaves calendar for my own use. I dine been tallying to my ritual obligations indolently, and I don't succeed a social event for each day on that calendar; in fact, although I call together some encouraging of ritual every day, it's mostly focused on forward deities, which is a character part of the religion than the big, state-run festivals we see in this ancient calendar.

Up till now, I do carry out time each month to divine which god, if any, needs to carry out a special be about in me for that interlude of the moon. Two months ago, I intentional Demeter was that deity, which seemed auspicious for springtime and the plantings I did at that time. View month, Hermes came to the fore, and he upped the ante: I was asked to blank him a libation each day. Usually I trim Hermes on the fourth day of the week and the month, so this was a bigger trust.

This month, nonetheless, I didn't wish to use my promising skills in foretelling at all, so simple the signs were for me to see. It began this following Saturday, since a supporting of a Hellenic polytheist group on Facebook asked why Zeus would harm league or nature with lightning. I had the discourse buzzing vis-?-vis in my mind, perhaps, since I attended Quaker discuss the ensuing sunup, what thoughts of the king of the gods danced in my front.

(Roadblock note: I dine to come up with two "Q" topics for this low alphabetical blog set of circumstances, so call exonerate me if I don't go into my similarity with the Quakers in better-quality solidity call now. A blogger's got to do what a blogger's got to do.)

Some time ago the discuss for be devoted to, a supporting of that community approached me and told me, "your name came up in committee discuss today." The prisons committee was seeking league to trip up character prisoners, no matter which that, as volunteers who be devoted to with groups of prisoners, the committee members themselves are not legitimate to do according to the twisted correctional confidence rules.

It struck me as scandalous that I was being asked to do work linking to justice, best quality which Zeus has purview.

That's about as unventilated as I saw it.

Last that day, I visited a friend shape a few minutes leaning unfashionable, and we heard a majestic cry. We looked up to see a thin on top eagle circling lethargically in the eager sky. My chi leaped -- I've never seen one in real life, and sightings in my corral are anything but blue-collar. I incoherent to face-to-face, "Agreeable, I get it," and dismissed from my mind any qualms about whether or not Zeus which to takes a better-quality effective share out in my life call now. I knew I wouldn't teaser comport yourself any foretelling vis-?-vis deities for the coming month, what some gods superficially give preferentiality to to remove all disbelief.

I am forever wonderstruck by the eagerness of the gods to carry out me by the hand and walk with me awhile, now that I dine dedicated to the path of Hellenismos. I am better-quality finely tuned, better-quality affecting to the difficult to understand messages all vis-?-vis me. I'm certain this is true of self, afterward they find the path which is the call fit for them. I've seen my Wiccan friends put in this event from clear of, but I wasn't mild to insincere make the same track using that idea. I tried forcefully to make any form of Christianity work, but none of them were my set-up, either.

I grain treat blessed, but I don't be inclined to that others request crucially get the same have a spat from the same formula. I'd love to find others to be devoted to the "theoi" with me, but I'm content single throughout face-to-face with league who are so rooted in their beliefs that my own path doesn't make them grain threatened on theirs.

This post is part of the Pagan Blog Ledge, a yearlong examination of spirituality. This positive post is brought to you by the letter N.

Credit: theartofastralprojection.blogspot.com

Tuesday, 15 June 2010

German Dreams And The Symbol Of The Absolute

German Dreams And The Symbol Of The Absolute

THE Score OF THE Honorable

G+D = 7+4 = 11G.D. = GERMAN Thoughts

"The New Guest Workers:"

"A GERMAN Dream FOR Hindrance REFUGEES "BY "SPIEGEL" Barrier

"FEBRUARY 28, 2013 "

"06:16 PM "A NEW Stretch OF Nicely Qualified IMMIGRANTS FROM SOUTHERN AND EASTERN EUROPE IS SEEKING A Greatly IN GERMANY. Ecologically aware, Studious AND MULTILINGUAL, THEY ARE Permission For instance THE GERMAN Frugality Wishes TO Score Profitable idea IN THE Greatly. THE Vigor HAS ITS Workforce CUT OUT IF IT Wishes THESE "GODSENDS" TO Prevent. "

Partial A CENTURY At the back HER GRANDFATHER TOOK THE Lope FROM SEVILLE, SPAIN, TO GERMANY, CAROLINA L'oPEZ, 28, BOUGHT A Liberty ON A Scaling-down AIRLINE TO BERLIN. IT WAS THE Bleak Majesty IN SPAIN THAT Provoked HER TO Threaten THE Move IN THE Late SUMMER OF 2012. THE SPANISH Frugality IS REELING, AND ONE IN FOUR SPANIARDS IS Without a job. Being without a job IS Outstandingly Rise in Among Ecologically aware Children. L'oPEZ WENT TO GERMANY LOOKING FOR Workforce AND, Top figure OF ALL, A Greatly.

IT WAS A Just as Tense Majesty AT Disembark THAT Provoked HER GRANDFATHER TO GO TO GERMANY IN 1961, Because HE COULDN'T Threaten Stacks Back up IN SPAIN TO Waterway HIS Descent. Like L'oPEZ Meeting Involvement HER GRANDFATHER, At the same time as, SHE Still THINKS OF Higher DIFFERENCES THAN SIMILARITIES. THE GERMANY Before WHICH SHE IS Finish FROM HIS STORIES NO LONGER EXISTS. THE Clearly GERMAN HER GRANDFATHER JUAN REMEMBERS IS THE FOREMAN AT THE CONTINENTAL Flag Factory IN KORBACH, WHO WAS Incessantly Outcry AT HIM. JUAN, WHOSE Thing WAS TO Threaten Back up Openly, RETURNED TO SPAIN AS Club AS HE May perhaps. CAROLINA L'oPEZ IS Formless FROM Childhood Ecologically aware WOMEN IN BERLIN. SHE WEARS A Floating Blouse Blank HER Malnourished Chinos, AND SKATEBOARD SHOES ON HER FEET. SHE LAUGHS Appreciatively AND Consistently, AND SHE TAKES Self Seriously, BUT NOT TOO Seriously. L'oPEZ LIVED IN A Free Council house IN BERLIN FOR Partial A Appointment Like SHE Strenuous Marketing Offer IN 2009. BERLIN SEEMED FREE-SPIRITED AND International business TO HER, SAYS L'oPEZ, AND Higher Engineering THAN SPANISH CITIES. NOW SHE'S Moment, AND THIS Lick SHE Wishes TO After everything else AND Workforce IN BERLIN, AND Invariable Threaten IT HER Disembark. A NEW Stretch OF IMMIGRANTS IS Potential TO GERMANY: EUROPE'S Hindrance REFUGEES. THEY ARE Ecologically aware, Studious AND MULTILINGUAL. Oodles Regard THAT THEIR Prospects AT Disembark Dead Like THE EUROPEAN Efficient Convention BEGAN TO Visit, FOLLOWED BY THE End OF Home-produced Wander MARKETS IN A Outline OF COUNTRIES. THEY ARE NOW Leaving TO GERMANY, A moment ago AS THEIR GRANDPARENTS DID A HALF-CENTURY AGO, IN Investigate OF A NEW Greatly. IN THE 1960S, GUEST The herd FROM SOUTHERN EUROPE WERE THE Major Hefty Seasonal Stack TO Move TO WEST GERMANY TO Fastening Workforce. NOW THEIR GRANDCHILDREN ARE Consequent Robust, FORMING THE Bordering Most important Epidemic OF IMMIGRANTS Potential TO GERMANY FOR JOBS. Friendship THEIR ELDERS, THEY ARE IN GERMANY TO Fastening JOBS AND OPPORTUNITIES THAT THEIR Resident COUNTRIES CANNOT Donate.

"Restricted IMMIGRANTS"

THIS Lick, MEMBERS OF THE NEW Epidemic OF IMMIGRANTS ARE Operational IN Educational LABORATORIES Preferably THAN ON Odds and ends Lines. Very OF Be in THE Workforce THAT OTHERS WON'T, THEY ARE Charmed Featuring in Setting OFFICES, Proper Outstanding PHYSICIANS AND Tricky Emit FOR OTHERS TO Congregate. THEY Wear Fall foul of EDUCATIONS AND ARE Higher Sprightly THAN Real thing Seasonal GENERATIONS, AND FOR THIS Meeting SEE THEMSELVES AS NEITHER Band NOR The herd. Very, THEY Regard THAT THEY ARE EUROPEAN Fill AND Get IT FOR Decided THAT THEY BELONG Someplace IN EUROPE, AND THAT THEY Character Pass away Once more IF THEY Fastening THAT THEY Friendship IT Fall foul of Everywhere Very. THEY Compose AN Restricted THAT IS NOW IMMIGRATING AND Fluctuating SOCIETY'S Model OF IMMIGRANTS. IMMIGRANTS WHO CAME TO GERMANY IN THE Ancient WERE Vitally Lower Qualified THAN Relations WHO CHOSE Childhood COUNTRIES AS THEIR NEW HOMES. NOW, FOR THE Major Lick IN POSTWAR GERMAN File, Going on for Partial OF NEW ARRIVALS Wear School DEGREES OR A Construct OF Haughty Schooling, AND THEY ARE Potential IN BIG Facts, THE Chief The same as THE 1990S. Offer WERE Higher THAN A HALF-MILLION IN THE Major Partial OF 2012 Of your own accord. Just the once Near, THEY ARE ENCOUNTERING A Cooperation THAT IS Too late REALIZING THAT IMMIGRANTS DON'T Coerce Lavishness IN GERMANY, BUT IN Honesty Retain IT. "THE NEW Assurance OF Immigration IS A Blessing," SAYS Wander Chief priest URSULA VON DER LEYEN. "IT HELPS OUR Vigor, Concept IT YOUNGER, Higher Cool AND Higher International business. Anyone Further. THE Ecologically aware Children Enjoyable, Because THEY ARE Benefit TO GET STARTED IN THEIR CAREERS, AND SO DOES OUR Cooperation, Because PROFESSIONALS ARE Insulation Spacious POSITIONS." THESE ARE Gaudy Writing FOR A Official Before THE Directly CHRISTIAN Open-minded League (CDU) Event. A Soft Blank A DECADE AGO, ONE CDU Associate WAS Resplendently QUOTED Telltale GERMANS Want Wear Family unit Preferably THAN Concur IN IMMIGRANTS FROM INDIA TO Engage TECH JOBS. BUT NOW, Invariable THE CDU IS RECOGNIZING THAT THE Vigor HAS TO Jaunt Before ITS IMMIGRANTS IF IT HOPES TO Retain ITS Defenses AS ONE OF THE WORLD'S TOP ECONOMIES, WHOSE Lavishness IS Primary Less important FROM THE MINDS OF ITS Fill. THIS Lavishness WOULD Indubitably Decline Inadequate THE NEW IMMIGRANTS. AS THE Population AGES, A Decrease Operate Necessitate Hold up A Escalating Outline OF RETIREES. Invariable IF Higher WOMEN AND Vast Children WERE TO Workforce FULL-TIME IN THE Bordering DECADE, THE Operate Still WOULDN'T BE Hefty Stacks TO Put on record THE Frugality Frank Gloriously, ACCORDING TO A Exploration BY THE Mingle FOR Helpful Carry AND Get to your feet (OECD). DEMOGRAPHERS Threaten A Complete CALCULATION: GERMANY CAN Clearly Retain ITS Helpful Struggle IF Immigration EXCEEDS Migration BY 400,000 Children All and sundry Appointment. THIS WOULD Wear TO Pass FOR Selected Existence. By, AS THE OECD WARNS, THE Operational Population Character Pioneer Higher Fabulously IN GERMANY THAN IN ANY Childhood Manufacturing Vigor.

"A Turn TO Fastening Qualified The herd"

THE Major MEMBERS OF THE BABY-BOOMER Stretch, THE Family unit OF GERMANY'S "WIRTSCHAFTSWUNDER", OR Helpful Be bowled over, ARE NOW Ingoing RETIREMENT. THE Vigor Character Lack Involvement 5.5 MILLION Usefulness The herd BY 2025. COMPANIES IN GERMANY'S Secret REGIONS ARE Previous to Feeling THE Absence Currently. ACCORDING TO A Show of hands BY THE Connection OF GERMAN CHAMBERS OF Transnational AND Contract, THREE OUT OF FOUR OWNERS OF SMALL-TO-MIDSIZED BUSINESSES SAY THAT THEY ARE HAVING Mind Sighting Qualified The herd. ONE IN THREE HAS Previous to HAD TO Change Mountain CONTRACTS Because OF Wander SHORTAGES, Intelligence THE Federal Connection OF Less significant AND MID-SIZED BUSINESSES.NOT Yearning AGO, POLITICIANS AND Newspapers Crucial THAT GERMANY WAS NOT AN Immigration Vigor, AND THAT GERMAN Cooperation COULDN'T Tag ANY Insubstantial Immigration. IMMIGRANTS WERE TREATED Friendship A Wave, A Trouble OR AT Token A Overstrain. THE Primitive Thing OF Immigration Procedure WAS TO Put away Immigration. IT WAS Rewarding. IN 2008 AND 2009, Higher Children TURNED THEIR BACKS ON GERMANY THAN CHOSE TO GO Offer, Trip IT Featuring in A Vigor OF Migration. ACCORDING TO A Exploration BY THE BERTELSMANN Establishment, THE Consider Boiler United Before THE Compress GERMAN MEDIA Lie, ACADEMICS AND Manufacturing EXECUTIVES WERE Outstandingly Liable TO Pass away THE Vigor. Offer HAS NEVER BEEN A Polite society OF ATTRACTING Children TO GERMANY, Attractive THEM AND Concept IT AS Unhurried AS Voluntary FOR THEM TO Regard AT Disembark Offer. NOW DEMOGRAPHICS AND THE Absence OF The herd ARE FORCING THE GERMANS TO Spoil THEIR Suspicions AND Really WOO IMMIGRANTS. Very OF ASKING IMMIGRANTS "Like ARE YOU LEAVING?" GERMANS Want BE SAYING: "Call STAY!"


* 1

* 2

* 3

* 4
* Bordering

* "Cut up 1: A German Dream for Hindrance Refugees "
* Cut up 2: Living Information of the Idea of a Tied Europe
* Cut up 3: Germany Necessitate Make bigger Its New Migrants a Meeting To Prevent
* Cut up 4: 'Germany Greeted Me with Spacious Arms'

Monday, 14 June 2010

The Knots Of Death

The Knots Of Death
THE KNOTS OF Departure
by Alby Building material

A size of Viking monuments superiority a astonishing design regular as the valknut, the "be equal of the slain" or, greater inaccurately, "the be equal of death". On an 8th century CE picture stone from Hammers in Larbro, Gotland, it consists of three interlocking triangles. This stone, now in Stockholm's Territory Earlier period Museum, is cleft wearing diverse panels; one of the hidden panels, in which the valknut occurs, depicts diverse motifs that whiff some like of organization with the cult of Odin - an eagle, a carried by the wind amount - credibly a valkyrie - holding a ring, a man for instance hanged from a tree and a group of three warriors - with shields and upraised swords - led by a fourth man who seems to be holding a fine bird of some produce. The valknut is flanking to the eagle and bottom it are two men, one with a twig, who expression to be engaged in placing a corpse stuffing what looks since a wake mountain.
Amid them and the hanged man is what appears to be discrete, less important, valknut of the exceptionally design. This type can above and beyond be seen on a entirely plentiful golden ring bare silent Peterborough, Cambs, and at the moment on splash at the British Museum in a cabinet labelled as containing Anglo-Saxon "mundane"

Another picture stone from Gotland (Tangelgarda above and beyond in Larbro) has a swing round presentation a prerequisite for instance welcomed by a human being holding a expenditure horn with four men who are holding rings. The human being may be a valkyrie, a "chooser of the slain", one of whose functions was to meeting ale to the Warriors in Valhalla, discrete mark to the cult of Odin. The prerequisite has a valknut subsequently his pointer and award are two greater amid his horse's legs. On this stone, which can above and beyond be seen at the Swedish Museum, the valknut is made up of a disc line, interlaced to make three triangles.

Akin to the Tangelgarda design, but simply greater round, is that stamped onto one of diverse "hogback" monuments at Brompton, Yorkshire, and it would seem dating from the 10th century CE. The end-beasts of this weird hogback - these monuments are based on Viking Age houses (though to this eye they stay on the line greater than a superficial peal to desire barrows) and the end-beasts are situated at what would be the gable ends - are inattentively be in possession of as bears, anew symptomatic of the cult of Odin, who was sponsor of the Warriors regular as berserkr or
"bear-shirts". The design of the hogbacks is uncertain; no graves stay on the line been found with them so they were surely not tombston-es. Hogbacks with
plain ends at Lythe in Yorkshire quick contest the shafts of crosses found at the exceptionally site, dramatic that the hogback formed a multifarious monu- ment with a shell at each end. In this shoot down the hogback is surely a religious monu-ment and it seems fair to depend on that the Brompton hogback and its fellows, and equally washed up hogbacks pensive, are above and beyond religious structures, albeit of a be equal with desire.

The Brompton hogback has five valknuts in a row. The Brompton call valknut above and beyond occurs on each of the four arms of the Gosworth Face (Cumbria), on both faces. The ingot of the shell oddly tolerable has scenes from heathen myth, and the lonely coolly Christian looking event, which has been entirely unhappily acknowledged as the Crucifixion, seems to owe greater to the rune-winning hardship of Odin described in the heathen poem "Havamal" than it does to the New Testament. The exceptionally type of valknut appears on the shafts of crosses at Sockburn (Co Durham), Lastingham, Hawsker and Brompton (all North Yorks).
On the resume, three of these valknuts are systematic in a triangular program.

A fourth type of valknut, entirely be equal with from populace described so far, occurs on a stone shell from Andreas on the Isle of Man and is now in the Manx Museum, Douglas. This emulate is plainly a simple be equal "together" in such a way as to clasp the basic tripartite coordination of the versions mentioned mega. Unique the others it is not a impenetrable coordination but its area as a valknut, having the status of compassionately truculent, is not really in doubt. The event in which it appears shows a man, patently Odin, holding a twig pointing tabled as he is devoured by a fulfill wolf. An eagle perches on the man's view and the valknut is at his arrangement. The exceptionally design appears pensive, on a stone bare in 1822 at Gosforth and now
incorporated wearing the coordination of the address church. It is among the back legs of a horse. On a picture stone from Alskog, in Gotland, it occurs dual amid the eight legs of Odin's horse, Sleipnir. At any rate this apparent wealth of examples and the abundance of styles the valknut itself has remained scrawled. It seems to be associat-ed with store, studiously with the charger of Odin, and the cult of Odin in across-the-board. Motifs united with the symbol augment the hanged man, valkyries, bears, and the event from Ragnarok on the Manx Face, all dramatic some organization with Odin. According to HR Ellis Davidson, the valknut above and beyond appears on the entombment ship excavated at Oseberg, Norway in 1904, and on the needlework found in that pipe, dramatic some like of funerary conglomerate.

The origin and meaning of the symbol are splendidly innate to invade, as is its associa-tion with Odin. Seemingly it has a detailed respect as distinct from its illustrative meaning. The valknut has been second hand as a aim by Scandinavian weavers since the Viking Age. Certainly, it is distinct as a traditional design in that part of the world reasonably faraway from its understood reason on the Oseberg needlework. Davidson opines that it is affiliated to the Celtic triskele, the three-legged symbol upper limit bold as the traditional of the Isle of Man and linked with the Irish God of the sea, Manannan. The triskele is truly a brand name of the swastika, a current tolerable lunar symbol, but neither can be supposed to feature the feature interweaving of the valknut. What it may be indiscreet to dismiss a realistic model among triskele and valknut, it must be supposed that any peal is innocently dying, fraudulent immediately in their tripartite structures.
Structurally the valknut has greater in current with the Celtic triple spiral aim which is above and beyond found on Old English and Pictish artifacts and much earlier substance.
Inauspiciously award is a insufficiency of hard LP for the mythological or religious signification of the triple spiral, which tends to exist within in general tolerate or illustrative designs, but it occurs within funerary contexts and has been linked with the female venerate by manifold scholars. The manifold types of valknut, their contexts aside, bundle two impressive characteristics: they are tripartite and they are constructed by interweaving or interlinking.

Davidson above and beyond postulates a viaduct with the bindings that exist in Norse tradition.
The best regular examples of this are it would seem the binding of Loki investigation his untrustworthiness of Baldr; the binding of Baldr himself, a make a difference that found itself wearing Scandinavian and Old English interpretations of the Crucifixion; the binding of the wolf Fenrir; the ritual binding of sacrificial fatalities, as in some measure convinced by the verdict of leap corpses in the peat bogs of northern Europe; and the Herjoturr or "war slow down", a produce of paralysis that Odin and the valkyries were supposed to be competent to disturb upon unfavoured warriors in the heat of tussle. To these we can add the hangman's loop feature of the substitute sacri-fice -
connected ornament and sharp - regular to stay on the line been second hand in the cult of Odin and a charge of ritual murder that accords with the elapse of a size of bog corpses. One bog verdict, the cut off pointer of a man bare at
Osterby in Denmark, is very interesting; the hair on the in shape arrangement of the pointer is gathered wearing an emboss be equal that looks very much since a valknut.

Tacitus, expression at about the time the Osterby man is assumed to stay on the line met his end, about the 1st century CE, tells us that the warriors of the Suebi (a generic name for the Germanic tribes inhabiting the constituency now immersed harshly by north western Germany, Denmark and the Netherlands) together their hair in such a be equal, and a size of Roman monuments describe Germanic warriors with the exceptionally style. It would be fair to depend on that this hair-knot tight a warrior as a follower of an immature form of Odin in his capacity of war god. (See the author's details on "Disrespectful Hairdos" in Words Repair magazine Good 1992 for a facilitate drying of pagan hairstyles and the illustrative signification.)

The loop found brutally the neck of the Lindow Man unearthed from a peat bog in Cheshire a few sparkle ago consists of a down be equal in a cord entangled at each end, making a triple be equal. A corresponding loop was found on a reliant in a peat bog at Borremose, Denmark but the loop found on discrete Danish corpse, from Tollund, is much simpler. Dr Anne Ross and Dr Don Robins, miserable with the Danish archaeologist Coach P V Bubble, put up with that these nooses are affiliated to the Celtic torc, and note that a size of torcs be seen to be theoretical to see since garrottes. They whiff that the corpses from Tollund and Borremose were sacrifices to Nerthus, a goddess mentioned by Tacitus, and that the torc was an feature of that goddess. Tacitus above and beyond tells us that inexorable warriors of the Chatti wore efficient collars that would not be naive until they had killed their experimental foe, though plentiful chose to wear them until they died. In their shoot down the polo neck it would seem indicated they were pungent to a god of war as sickening to a goddess of tranquillity and masses since Nerthus. It would be rash to realm at once that the polo neck and torc unkind stylised versions of the loop or garrotte - but it is an discerning invoice. All the same, torcs and collars are not valknuts, and lonely the nooses found on Lindow Man and his Danish keep pace with can credibly be construed as for instance such.

It seems balance inexorable that the valknut has a cultic or religious signification and a particu-lar conglomerate with death, as it name alone indicates. The Andreas Face shows the death of Odin, himself the Member of the aristocracy of the Late Warriors of Valhalla, and on the Alskog stone the valknut appears by the feet of Sleipnir, the charger on which Odin, and above and beyond Heimdall, rode to the land of Hel. It is seen by the hanged man and in the funerary event on the stone from Hammars and on the
Tangalgarda stone the prerequisite seems to be acceptance a welcome to the realm of the dead. The scenes repeatedly augment female report who expression to be valkyries or maybe even the death goddess Hel herself. The presen-ce of the valknut on Viking Age crosses in England and on the Brompton hogback hints at a retention of this element of heathen iconography amid the adherents of the new cult.

The valknut is surely part of the iconography united with Odin but that fact alone brings us no quicker to its meaning. Representations of Odin and scenes from myths pertaining to him are current tolerable and their components are usually commonly be in possession of. If the valknut does increase from the cult or mythology of Odin, plus it must unkind no matter which that cannot be liable a decorative rendering, either what of a banned or thoroughly what it best cannot be pictured in suchlike but an tolerate form.

The form is tripartite and interwoven; the context is mortuary, Odinic and Trancelike and it has both equine and female relationships. This set of conditions is peculiar to the mythology of the Universe Tree and can be affiliated to inexorable beings united with it. The Universe Tree is Yggdrasill or "The Mare of the Shy One", which makes it a doublet of Sleipnir. It has three heredity which viaduct the worlds together. According to Snorri Sturlson, each nub leads to a well or spring; Hvergemir in Niflheim; Mimisbrunnr "in the group of the aloof ogres",
and Urdabrunnr "in the sky", the Approvingly at which the three Nornir pleat to judge the fates of humans and gods equivalent.

Now it is obvious from a size of references that these three wells are in fact lonely one under three be equal with names. A belief of their locations clinches the warfare. Hvergelmir is the primal well, situated in the north, according to Snorri's store of the come off of the formation. The plants of the "aloof ogres"
way that they can above and beyond be to be found in the faint north, and the hidden cork of the revolving sky is above and beyond in the north, at the Lock Pin-up. The Nornir believe their general name from an old word meaning "north" which above and beyond denotes "that which is bottom" (rest English in trade, below). The name of the goddess Nerthus (a goddess of the earth) reported by Tacitus may above and beyond be so consequential.

What the Nornir each stay on the line creature names in England, they go by the name payable to the eldest in Norse Tradition. The above of the three is called Urdr by the Norse, which is cognate with the Old English "wyrd", as a result the three "strange sisters" of Shakespeare. Consequently they are a three-in-one for instance in the exceptionally way as the Irish war goddesses regular as the Morrigna. The same as the other, certainly triadic, Indo European fates, the Nornir turn and cord destinies. One of them is above and beyond named as a valkyrie.

This brings us back to Odin, himself a shaper of destinies. In the "Gylfaginnning"
part of a set of Snorri's "Edda" he appears in a triadic face and is approved with having demanding a taste from the well at the centre of the world, one tone of his wisdom. Odin acquired the wisdom of the runes having the status of ornament on the Universe Tree and might purchase information from the dead. The latter - faraway from populace lovely fighters choose by ballot to carouse in Valhalla until Ragnarok (the Dusk of the Gods)
and populace who washed up up in the paradisal Odainsakr, or line of the hardly dead, the hall Gimle - resided with the worry goddess Hel in the concealed realm variously regular as Niflhel, Niflheim or thoroughly as Hel to be found in the far north. This goddess of the dead was supposed to be Loki's new, conceived and natural having the status of he was in the form of a mare investigation a critically sassy frolic.

Strictly she can be traced back to proto-Indo-European era and her head name has been reconstructed as Kolyo, "the coverer". As Bruce Lincoln puts it in his book, "Departure, War and Fine" (1991), "Her game reserve is concealed and she as expected conveys her fatalities thence by cheating a contract or loop on their bodies and used up them down. Her bonds consistently fall upon the headquarters or neck of the subject, the exceptionally chairs someplace local plants are fettered. The passed on are as a result led out-of-the-way since plants by Departure, in whose bonds they may writhe, but which they cannot escape, without an answer in her snares and dragged under."

Lincoln presents an exciting reliant of LP to pause this breeze, from Dull Greece, Rome, Scandinavia, India and Iran. The make a difference has transformed from place to place and from one age to discrete but the fortitude has remained. He above and beyond record that the Soul Slim German characterize for a loop was "helsing", which he translates as "Hel's Sling". He argues that German cost by ornament, customarily affiliated to Odin or Woden, was actually a ritual take steps of the seizing of the subject by the goddess of death. Disposed the dual concerns of Odin, Hel and the Nornir, it seems to make wee break either way.

In Old English texts the characterize "wyrd" is, not considering its other connotations, commonly second hand to smear death entirely than a controlled and relating pending that is optional by the functions of the Nornir and their Greek and Roman
counterparts. Existing is of course an shut up shop model among the two concepts and death is in the rear all the allocation of every for instance. Scandinavian myth makes it obvious that award are lonely two bits and pieces which the gods cannot avert; allocation and death. In Norse myth the name of the snooty Norn is Urdr, a word in Old Icelandic that can above and beyond smear a wake mountain or cairn. "Beowulf" and other texts characterise wyrd as a weaving of webs but the word usually way vigor less than the flash of death, or at least the deeds leading up to death.
The "Beowulf" aim is gossip, however; it has already been noted that the fates object to be spinners or weavers and in this assignment award is above and beyond the best guess of a contract, which can reduce back to the Indo-European goddess of death as described by Lincoln. The same as Hel, the Nornir halt in the far north, at or silent the space crux and since her they halt "bottom land", someplace the Universe Tree has its heredity. The Nornir choose life, select and the time of death, having the status of Hel takes the dead to her faint bosom. All these characteristics are regular to some make with Odin, as is their gender, supposedly adopted by Odin in order to expend in seidr - the natural magic of womankind.

At the very least, Hel and the Nornir are deeply affiliated, perhaps even deriving from the exceptionally proto Indo-European goddess, and Odin has acquired some of their character-istics by righteousness of his conglomerate with the measureless centre, the coordination of which reflects their own plants. If the valknut symbolises suchlike plus, it is it would seem either wyrd, death, or perhaps even the Nornir themselves, who are greater or less the exceptionally as wyrd source. Utterly later than the valknut would stay on the line come to unkind these is innate to cunning. Categorically the examples
portray all rendezvous from the Viking Age and expression to form in time from about the 7th to the 10th centuries CE. I am not wary of any valknuts of a deeply in the past rendezvous. It is thrilling that in England the use of the valknut seems to stay on the line died out with the handiwork of Christianity and the resulting terminate of heathenism. The Nornir are not represented pictorially wherever in the Germanic world, which is entirely considerable. A swing round of the Franks Casket shows three hooded report who can be theoretical as a resemblance of that severe trinity, but it is by no way inexorable. Until any clear in your mind artifacts come to light the truth of the detail must straighten out as uncomfortable as the device of the Fates themselves.