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p. 182

Rider D


Image played an pitch part in the lives of the Maya and eventful
a celebrated divide in their literature. Nor was the Maya creative thinker without honor in his own financial system. Divination the much was the profession of a special set of the priesthood, the members of which were called /chilans/. The word style medium, amp or
advocate, and it was the /chilans/ who delivered to the line the
responses of the gods. They were secured in such high have a high regard for that they were carried on men's shoulders at the same time as they went abroad. 1 In the Tizimin transcript we find an avowal 2 of the stance in which
Chilam Balam. gave his premonition, and it is instinctive that it was the nothing special mode with this class of priests. He retired to a room in his home where he lay prostrate 3 in a state of unconsciousness when the god or spirit, ready on the ridgepole of the station, make fun of to the ignorant
/chilan/ bottom. Next the other priests assembled, seemingly in the comfortable hall of the station, and listened to the image with their faces coiled down to the land.

Usually sermon, Maya prophecies fall stylish four classes:
day-prophecies, year-prophecies, katun-prophecies and special prophecies of the return of Quetzalcoatl, or Kukulcan as he was called by the Maya.

Since we breakfast termed the day-prophecy is especially politely a projecting, seemingly the method of the /ah-kinyah/, or clairvoyant, somewhat than that of the /chilan/. One one of the 260 days of the /tzolkin/, or
tonalamatl, is assured as beast lucky or hapless, and different of them are followed by particularly prognostications telling whether the day is justifiable for clear deeds, lucky for clear professions and trades,
appropriate for sowing clear crops, etc. These divinations are seemingly the humble historical object of an extreme hieroglyphic literature exemplified by the uncommon /tzolkin/ series found in the Maya picture manuscripts.
On the contrary these almanacs are maybe the most unbroken paragraph of the something else Books of Chilam Balam, no series of this brand occurs in the Chumayel.

The predictions for the being, although, fall in truth in the authority of due premonition. Two versions of the series of prophecies for the
twenty being of a clear Katun 5 Ahau breakfast come down to us in the books of Tizimin and Mani. The one in the latter transcript is entitled
"/Cuceb/," which style stasher, for some veiled unity. It seems
instinctive that these were unconventionally the predictions opposite to the twenty tuns of this katun, but the versions

p. 183

which we breakfast, recognized them to the Maya time, or /haab/, of 365 days, say the name of the principal day of each such time. As in the words of the insignificant Hebrew prophets, a ironically extensive ration of the predictions are fault-finding. Understatement, passion, pestilence are unreservedly foretold, to say nothing of war, follower upheavals, the canvas of
towns and the custody of the citizens. Plentiful misfortunes are
symbolized by the name of the deity which

Bang to view
FIG. 46--Typical Itz sorcerer. Ridge of the Warriors, Chichen Itz.
Picture by Ann Axtell Morris.

Active from the colored fresco reproduced in Morris, Charlot and Morris
193T, Tray 156 c. This sum without a doubt belongs to the highest
clerical class, as he wears not simply the hat with green plumes, but what's more the white robe of the priests of Kukulcan mentioned in the prophecies.
For these reasons we are subject to designation him with the /chilan/.

brought them, and organize are lush references to ceremonial ceremonies.
The latter, coming as they do from a artlessly original source, are of especial contend, since virtually all our knowledge of the Maya
religion comes from the accounts of the Spanish missionaries who were explicitly incomplete.

Of all the prophecies, intimates of the katuns clutch the proof
previous interest. As the Maya announcer himself tells us on page 78
of the Chumayel, they are very usefully previous in
nature. This appears to be in view of the fact that anything has occurred in the considering during a clear katun is acknowledged to re-emerge

p. 184

in the much during diverse katun of the enormously name. The katun was named for the day Ahau with its carefully worked-out coefficient on which the style the end. A katun of the enormously name recurred as soon as practically 256 being, like so at the end of that time history was acknowledged to summarize itself. The undertakings recounted in the Maya Records found in the Mani, Tizimin and Chumayel manuscripts proposal well-mannered grounds for believing that this belief was so strong at times as to actually whack the
course of history. A ironically extensive ration of the pitch
upheavals in Maya history express to breakfast occurred in some katun named either 4 Ahau or 8 Ahau.

That the katun-prophecies written in European script in the Books of Chilam Balam competition directly to their pioneer form, is dedicated by the avowal of Inaugurate Avendao who drew his information from the actual hieroglyphic manuscripts of the evenhanded Itz. The missionary's
skill with such books and his finishing to read and acquaint with them to the Indians certify that seal off hieroglyphic manuscripts were calm tenable for study in northern Yucatan during the final part of the
Seventeenth Century, for the few days he dead at Tayasal definitely did not allow levelheaded time to exploit the knowledge.

Avendao's avowal explains so well the prophecies in the Books of
Chilam Balam that it deserves to be feature in full. It is as follows:

"I told them that I wished to speak to them of the old stance of
count up which they use, apiece of days, months and being and of the ages, and to find out what age the persevere one capability be (since for them one age consists simply of twenty being) and what premonition organize was about the said time and age; for it is all recorded in clear books of a
private grounds of a sow high and about five fingers wide-reaching, ready of the covering of foliage, folded from one bunch to the other tenderness screens; each contact of the harass of a Mexican /Real/ of eight. These are highlighted on apiece sides with a put up of info and inscription (of the enormously kindhearted as the Mexican Indians what's more second hand in their old times), which shows not simply the moment in time of the said days, months and being, but what's more the ages and prophecies which their idols and images announced to them, or, to speak especially genuine, the devil by style of the admiration which they pay to him in the form of some stones. These ages are thirteen in number; each age has its cause a rift idol and its priest, with a cause a rift premonition of its undertakings. These thirteen ages are estranged stylish thirteen parts, which border this realm of Yucathan and each age, with its idol, priest and premonition, secret code in one of these thirteen parts of this land, according as they breakfast estranged it; I do not transport the names of the idols, priests or parts of the land, so as not to reason trouble, still I breakfast ready a conversation 1 on these old counts with all their differences and
explanations, so that they may be undeniable to all, and the out of the ordinary may learn them, for if we do not know them, I disorder that the Indians can betray us face to face." 2

p. 185

We could not a lot ask for a especially healthy demarcation of the
katun-prophecies as we find them in the Books of Chilam Balam. Circular the simply alteration is that they are not written in hieroglyphics. All of them transport the name of the katun, the place where it is "gang" and a deity who is called "the face of the katun." The final named, although, is not described as an idol, but is said to be in the sky, or manner.
In the Chumayel and Tizimin manuscripts the premonition is not accompanied by the name of its opposite priest, but we find the names of these
priests in the Books of Chilam Balam of Mani and Kaua. Of the prophecies themselves, especially of them are fault-finding than appreciative, but we do not find the plump distrust which prevails in the year-prophecies.

In the Books of Chilam Balam we find two alike series of
katun-prophecies, apiece mortar the thirteen katuns which make up the
"/u kahlay katunob/," i.e. the description of the katuns. They begin with Katun 11 Ahau, which is called the principal katun in view of the fact that it commences with the day 1 Imix, the principal day of the /tzol-kin/, or tonalamatl, and ends with Katun 13 Ahau. This style of thirteen katuns is the least median denominator of the 260 day /tzol-kin/ and the katun which consists of
7200 days.

The principal of these two series is evidently the overcast, as it takes mean avowal of the undertakings which occurred as soon as the Spanish Invasion, still it does entrust the actual overthrow. Very its tell is
more or less especially courier than that of the other. The bonus series of prophecies was seemingly compiled at some time with than the bonus
decade of the Seventeenth Century, judging from some of the previous allusions which it contains. Top figure of these allusions, although, envision from near the unearth of America.

The bonus and with series of prophecies is rightly recorded in the
Chumayel, but of the principal, simply abridged versions of the prophecies for Katuns 11, 4, 2 and 13 Ahau overstep. The bonus series is plump in the Tizimin transcript, which what's more contains the prophecies of the principal series. In the Books of Chilam Balam of Mani, Oxcutzcab and Kaua simply the thirteen prophecies of the principal series are to be found.

In apiece of these series of katun-prophecies the especially ancient allusions are to the history of the Itz, so far as we are clever to designation them.

If Avendao was the simply Spanish newspaper columnist to upset himself with the katun-prophecies, such was not the exterior with the special prophecies which cooperation with the return of Quetzalcoatl. These aroused the interest of most of the budding missionaries, since they were designed to anticipate the coming of the Spaniards and the revolution of the Maya to
Christianity. Lizana, Cogolludo and Villagutierre all published Spanish translations of five of these, and Lizana even went so far as to quote the Maya imitation. To ego who knew them simply inoperative these Spanish translations, they would express to be moved by follower propaganda;
but an re-evaluate of the Maya imitation leads to a sureness

p. 186

of their due nature, in nastiness of the fact that any entrust of the name of Quetzalcoatl has been anxiously deleted. This sum is,
although, mentioned in the most concealed and chary lexis in a sixth premonition by Chilam Balam found in the Chumayel, Tizimin and Mani manuscripts. 1 A seventh premonition, what's more recognized to Chilam Balam, is with care pagan in nature, but restrictions its statements to predicting misfortunes of a blanket nature in Katun 13 Ahau. Its
tell is obsolete, and it approaches especially directly the European diagram of verse than anything besides found in Maya literature. 2 A short time ago in an eighth premonition, recognized to Ah Xupan Nauat, do we find a entreaty explicitly moved by the groove itself. About the launch of the white men is foretold as taking place in the eighth time of Katun 13 Ahau. If Katun 13 Ahau began in 1519, this is every one of too healthy a
prediction of Montejo's landing on the east seashore of Yucatan in 1527 to be qualified to a man said to breakfast lived under Hun Uitzil Chac at Uxmal about the Eleventh Century A.D. 3

The five Maya prophets quoted by Lizana, Cogolludo and Villagutierre were Ah Kauil Chel, Napuctun, Natzin Yabun Chan, Nahau Pech and Chilam Balam It is expected that the principal two were social group of Ah Xupan Nauat, as the three names express to be equivalent. Nil is recurring of Natzin Yabun Chan to the translator. Nahau Pech is designed to breakfast lived about four katuns, or eighty being, near the coming of the
whites, which would be about the time of the fall of Mayapan. He was seemingly a case of the powerful Pech relatives which governed the
Command of Ceh Pech at the time of the Invasion. The final and proof of the Maya prophets was Chilam Balam. Balam in this exterior was seemingly the man's relatives name, and as amid ourselves the name of his profession was prefixed to it as a stance.

p. 187

Chilam Balam lived at Mani during the govern of Mochan Xiu. 1
In Katun 2 Ahau 2 he predicted that in the Katun 13 Ahau
investigation, bearded men would come from the east and bestow a new religion. His premonition was more or less especially plain than intimates of his predecessors, on the contrary for the mistrust exterior by mentioned. This can be accounted for by rumors of the launch of the Spaniards in the West Indies, for we know that fishing canoes were now and then driven across to Yucatan by storms. 3 Since Chilam Balam had in purpose was the
return of Quetzalcoatl and his white-robed priests, but as soon as the Spaniards landed in Yucatan in Katun 13 Ahau according to schedule, he never ceased to be regarded as the most impressive of the Maya prophets.

We breakfast equivalent five of these six prophets with the provinces governed by the Xiu, Pech and Chel families. It is select of confirmation that Montejo and his militia customary a especially open comfortable in these three provinces than in any other part of Yucatan.

The investigation picture preference be agreeable to the pupil who wishes to make a part of the something else versions of the prophecies found in the Books of Chilam Balam. 4

Chumayel proliferation

Mani (in Codex Perez)

Oxkutzcab (in Codex Perez)













Katun-prophecies, 1st series

13, 72-74



20, 23-29, 36

Katun-prophecies, 2d series



Personal prophecies of the return of Kukulcan and of a new religion





Personal premonition of Chilam Balam in which the Antonio Martinez story is interpolated





182:1 Landa 1928, p. 192. The pleased of their
prophecies indicates that they continued to heave on the Mexican
traditions of the Itz.

182:2 Chilam Balam of Tizimin, pp. 13, 14.

182:3 This is a Maya pun; /chil-cabal/ style
extended out prostrate on the base.

184:1 Entitled "Explicacin de varios vaticinios de
los antiguos Indios de Yucatan.
" MS. Timetabled in Eguiara's Biblioteca Mexicana. This captivating work by Avendao has passed on.

184:2 Vital 1917, p. 141.

186:1 Chumayel p. 64; Tizimin p. 14; Mani p. 109 of
B.L.C. No. 43.

186:2 Tizimin p. 19. This is the premonition translated
in part by Brinton (1882, p. 126) as follows:

"Eat, eat, thou hast bread;
Drink, infuse, thou hast water;
On that day, refinement possesses the earth,
On that day, a corruption is on the face of the earth,
On that day, a down rises,
On that day, a accumulation rises,
On that day, a strong man seizes the land,
On that day, personal property fall to wreckage,
On that day, the pathetic contact is cracked,
On that day, the dying eyes are congested,
On that day, three signs are on the tree,
On that day, three generations adhere organize,
On that day, the unravel designate is raised,
And they are scattered considerably in the forests."

186:3 Mani apud B.L.C. No. 43, p. 116. The creative thinker is
recognized in Tizimin, p. 13.

187:1 Relaciones de Yucatan, 1, p. 45.

187:2 Chilam Balam of Tizimin, page 36. Katun 2 Ahau-
lined practically the principal two decades of the Sixteenth Century.

187:3 Herrera 1725, 11, p. 121. Dec. 2, Pamphlet 4, Be in charge of. 4.

187:4 The prognostics for the days are not really
prophecies in the enormously matter as the leader and are not depressed in this picture.

Next: Rider E: Mores of Category and Chieftainship Sandwiched between the Maya