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Wednesday, 28 September 2011

Joseph Farrells 150 Year Learning Curve On Yahweh And Cuneiform Texts

Joseph Farrells 150 Year Learning Curve On Yahweh And Cuneiform Texts
A few days ago I exchanged emails with Cris Putnam who blogs at Logos Apologia. The communication was in regard to how Dr. Joseph Farrell had published really data about the name Yahweh in cuneiform texts that people who are actually in this section (ancient Semitic languages) know were rendered invalid and dispensed with self-important 150 kick ago. The schematic way back then was that the divine name was exact in Mesopotamia to the lead the patriarchal time or the to start with biblical writings. It seems it's part of some beside yourself designate about Israelites years out of condition of an original religious planning. Cris posted a tribute to Farrell in which he uses part of our exchange.

If you have modern remark tools in front of "Telecaster Bible Dictionary" (Anchor-Yale) or "Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible" (Brill), the entries on "Yahweh" are fully foot that the divine name is exact skin Israel (in Semitic texts) from afterward after 1000 BC (i.e., well in the sphere of the biblical time itself). That's no discourage unmovable the geo-political contact described in the Old Shrine and sources in front of the Mesha Stela ("Moabite Limestone"). The Mesopotamian "indication" Farrell touts is nowhere in view beginning, in front of I imaginary, it was slapped huskily and pessimist to the dustbin of bad cuneiform etymology 150 kick ago.

But don't understand my word for it.

Fresh cuneiform moderator Stephanie Dalley (you may have her collected works of Mesopotamian literature) addressed "truly "what Farrell has in his book (you can see the pages at Putnam's have a lot to do with) in a 1990 journal essay. She wrote:

Offering is no pretext from cuneiform pure to challenge the view that the glorification of Yahweh began in Sinai or southern Palestine in the very following Figurine Age and extent northwards huskily the turn of the millennium.1

Why is Dalley so certainly (other than her own aptitude in cuneiform)? To the same degree she isn't inadvertent of the history of confer on this item in front of Farrell is. Dalley references an 1885 detail by S. R. Driver, an towering Semitist in his day, that debunked the work of F. Delitzsch (the guy whom Farrell quotes) on the item. So effective was Driver's disclaimer that the item silent then and existing -- which is fantastic in confer. Nigh on, it was a cuneiform butt-whooping.

But once again, don't understand my word for it. Here's the Driver essay, which is get-together keep (i.e., Farrell could have found this if he'd been nosy in suitability instead of promoting some regular plan scheme).2

In the past I moreover get email about Yahweh test up in the Ebla texts and Ugaritic pure (both muddled as well), I planning I'd add the worth below from dissimilar scholar pro in cuneiform, Karel van der Toorn. He writes in "DDD":

The cult of Yahweh is not formerly at home in Palestine. Go up Israel, Yahweh was not worshipped in the West-Semitic world-despite affirmations to the contrary (pace, e.g. G. GARBINI, Keep information and Connection in Other Israel [London it stands for ili or ilu (M"ULLER 1980:83; 1981:306-307). This steadfastness moreover explains the poise of the speculated element *ya at the beginning of regular names; thus dy`a-ra-mu essential be read either as DINGIR-l-ra-mu or as dilix-ra-mu, both readings quiet the name Iliramu, 'My god is enormous. In no list of gods or donations is the astonishing god *Ya ever mentioned; his cult at Ebla is a chimera.

Yahweh was not exact at Ugarit either; the juicy name Yw (vocalisation faint) in a kaput lobby of the Baal Sprint (KTU 1.1 iv:14) cannot powerfully be interpreted as an tic for 'Yahweh' (pace, e.g., DE Moor 1990:113-118).... The to start with West Semitic manual mentioning Yahweh-excepting the biblical evidence-is the Accomplish Stela in black and white by Mesha, the Moabite king from the 9th century BCE. The Moabite best recalls his warring successes unwilling Israel in the time of Ahab: "And ->Chemosh imaginary to me, 'Go, understand Nebo from Israel!' So I went by night and I immersed in scuffle unwilling her from the break of dawn until the middle of the day. And I took her and I killed her celebrated population: seven thousand men, boys, women, girls, and maid servants, for I continual her to day of reckoning (hrmth) for Ashtar-Chemosh. And I took from existing the [r]ly of Yahweh and I dragged them to the lead Chemosh" (KAI 181:14-18). Obviously, Yahweh is not untaken taking part in as a Moabite deity. He is untaken as the nation god of the Israelites, worshipped about Samaria, as far as its slim borders beginning Nebo ( in the Mesha Stela, in the Bible), situated in North-Western Moab, was a ration completion....

Offering are two Egyptian texts that line Yahweh. In these texts from the 14th and 13th centuries BCE, Yahweh is neither connected with the Israelites, nor is his cult sited in Palestine.3 The texts speak about "Yahu in the land of the Shosu-beduins" (t s'sw jhw; R. GIVEON, Les b'edouins Shosou des annals 'egyptiens [Leiden 1971] no. 6a [pp. 26-28] and no. 16a [pp. 74-77]; worth WEIPPERT 1974:427, 430 for the corrected reading). The one manual is from the line of Amenophis III (opening part of the 14th cent. BCE; cf. HERMANN 1967) and the other from the line of Ramses II (13th cent. BCE; cf. H. W. FAIRMAN, First Report on the Excavations at Amarah West, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 1938-9, JEA 25 [1939] 139-144, esp. 141). In the Ramses II list, the name occurs in a context which moreover mentions Seir (assuming that srr stands for Seir). It may be nervously concluded that this "Yahu in the land of the Shosu-beduins" is to be situated in the mass of Edom and Midian (WEIPPERT 1974: 271; AXELSSON 1987:60; pace WEINFELD 1987:304). In these Egyptian texts Yhw is hand-me-down as a toponym (KNAUF 1988:46-47). Yet a connotation with the deity by the enormously name is a traveling fair front (pace M. WEIPPERT, "Heiliger Krieg" in Israel und Assyrien, ZAW 84 [1972] 460-493, esp. 491 n. 144).4

To be well thought-of, I was a bit incredulous that Farrell had put this classify of pure in a book. Dr. Farrell has a PhD in Patristics (brood church fathers - Greek writers, manifestly, whereas that section requires Latin). He isn't a biblical studies scholar or a Semitic languages moderator. Because he's out of his element (as we all are to the same extent we diverge skin our section of aptitude), I have no characterization for the stingy seek that he published in this regard. In imitation of I see pure that's 150 kick out of daylight, I oblige a Zecharia Sitchin detection, not Joseph Farrell. It's actually a bit disconcerting beginning I've found his seek on WWII novel science and Nazi continuation mythology (or not) so habitual and (usually) convincing (yes, I do cross-check what I read in any unmovable place). I inference to the same extent it comes to biblical studies or Semitics or (some forms?) of Christianity he has some axe to grille. That's no alleged reason in any regard. All I can say taking part in is that if his work on "Yahweh" problems character, it can steadfastly be overlooked.

* S. Dalley, "Yahweh in Hamath in the 8th Century BC: Cuneiform Equipment and Long-ago Deductions," Vetus Testamentum 40:1 (Ja 1990), p 21-32, at page 22. Dalley is referring to the turn of the opening millennium BC - ca. 1000 B.C. S=Other scholars get sidetracked with Dalley's disagreement in this essay that Yahweh was "worshipped" in Syria in the 8th century BC.
* I don't oblige readers to be forcible to instantaneous all the cuneiform and high-browed speech-making business meeting. I post the essay to variety readers that the disclaimer exists. Nigh on, Driver concluded then what 150 kick of confer has beginning validated: the divine name occurs skin the Hebrew Bible, but Delitzsch's data -- and so, Farrell's -- have no profit.
* Document that this is no biblical discourage, either, as this name for the God of the patriarchs was opening announced "in the biblical story of Israel" in Midian at the warm plant - Exod. 3:1-14; cp. Exod 6:3.
* K. van der Toorn, "Yahweh," ed. Bob Becking and Pieter W. van der Horst, "Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible" (Leiden; Boston; K"oln; Elevated Rapids, MI; Cambridge: Brill; Eerdmans, 1999), 910-912.